Help text provides either an informative description or an error message that gives more context about what a user needs to input. It’s commonly used in forms.
The text can accommodate either a description or an error message, giving extra context and guidance. Sometimes this communicates what to input or select, and sometimes it communicates how. It includes information such as:
Regardless of the kind of message, it should be clear and concise. Use 1-2 short, complete sentences that end with a period (never an exclamation point). When showing formatting examples, it's not necessary to end with a period.
Help text has two variants: neutral and negative. The neutral variant is used to convey informative messages, while the negative variant is used to convey error messages.
Help text using the negative variant can have an optional icon. In most cases, help text is used with a component that already displays an icon communicating an error (e.g., text field, text area, picker, combo box), so it’s not necessary to include another icon. In other cases, help text that is used with a component that does not display an icon communicating an error (e.g., checkbox group, radio group) needs to display an icon.
Help text comes in four different sizes: small, medium, large, and extra-large. The medium size is the default and most frequent option. Use the other sizes sparingly and pair them with components of the same size to respect the built-in hierarchy.
Help text using the neutral variant can be displayed in a disabled state. The text appears with a lighter gray that matches the style of other components in a disabled state. Help text using the negative variant cannot be displayed in a disabled state because it communicates an error, and error messages should not be visible when the component is disabled.
From the design point of view, each component has a number of options. These options and their names are platform agnostic, and each implementation should adapt these to fit into their framework.
neutral / negative
yes / no
Only applicable if variant is negative.
small / medium / large / extra-large
yes / no
Only applicable if variant is neutral.
When the text is too long for the available horizontal space, it wraps to form another line.
For the optional icon that can be displayed with the negative variant, usage depends on what kind of component the help text is accompanying.
For components such as text fields, text areas, pickers, and combo boxes, where there is already an icon communicating an error, it’s not necessary to include another icon. For checkbox groups or radio button groups, where there is no icon to communicate an error, include the optional icon.
Help text displays either a description (the neutral variant) or an error message (the negative variant) in the same space. When a description is present and an error is triggered, it is replaced with an error message. Once the error is resolved, the help text description reappears.
Since one gets replaced by the other, the language of the help text description and the error need to work together to convey the same messaging. The description text explains the requirements or adds supplementary context for how to successfully interact with a component. The error message text tells a user how to fix the error by re-stating the interaction requirements. Make sure that the help text description and error message include the same essential information so that it isn’t lost if one replaces the other.
Communicate error messages in a human-centered way by guiding a user and showing them a solution — don’t simply state what’s wrong and then leave them guessing as to how to resolve it. Ambiguous error messages can be frustrating and even shame-inducing for users. Also, keep in mind that something that a system may deem an error may not actually be perceived as an error to a user.
For help text, usually the error is related to something that needs to be fixed for in-line validation, so a helpful tone is most appropriate. For example, if someone were to miss filling out a required field that asks for their email address, write the error text like you’re offering a hint or a tip to help guide them to understand what needs to go in the missing field: “Enter your email address.”
For RTL (right-to-left) languages, the layout of the help text is mirrored. The icon is placed on the right side of the text.
|Oct 20, 2020||1.0.0|
Includes all interactive states that are applicable (hover, down, focus, keyboard focus, disabled).
Works properly across all four color themes (lightest, light, dark, darkest).
Includes a desktop scale (UWP, macOS, web desktop) and a mobile scale (iOS, Android, web mobile).
Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information (WCAG 2.0 1.4.1).
Text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 for small text and at least 3:1 for large text (WCAG 2.0 1.4.3).
Visual information required to identify components and states (except inactive components) has a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 (WCAG 2.1 1.4.11).
UI language and information design considerations have been incorporated into component design.
Includes relevant options (variant, style, size, orientation, optional iconography, decorations, selection, error state, etc.)
Includes guidelines for keyboard focus, layout (wrapping, truncation, overflow), animation, interactions, etc.
Includes a list of dos and don'ts that highlight best practices and common mistakes.
Includes content standards or usage guidelines for how to write or format in-product content for the component.
Works properly across various locales and includes guidelines for bi-directionality (RTL).
Follows WCAG 2.0 standards for keyboard accessibility guidelines and includes a description of the keyboard interactions.
All design attributes (color, typography, layout, animation, etc.) are available as design tokens.
Includes a downloadable XD file that shows multiple options, states, color themes, and platform scales.
Includes a downloadable XD file, generated by code using design tokens defined in Spectrum DNA, and shows multiple options, states, color themes, and platform scales.
Component is included in the Spectrum for Adobe XD plugin.